Among other changes, the referendum approved by Turkish citizens on Sunday grants President Erdoğan the power to elect senior members in his administration and the Supreme Court, do away with the prime ministership and allow him to remain in power until 2029.
A widespread government crackdown has targeted Gülen followers and other government opponents, branding them terrorists. A state of emergency has been imposed. About 100,000 people—including judges, teachers, academics, doctors, journalists, military officials and police—have lost their jobs in the crackdown, and more than 40,000 have been arrested. Hundreds of media outlets and non-governmental organizations have been shut down. Turkey has also suffered renewed violence between Kurdish militants and security forces in the country's volatile southeast, as well as a string of bombings, some attributed to ISIS, which is active across the border in Syria. The war in Syria has led to some 3 million refugees crossing into Turkey. Erdoğan sent troops into Syria to help opposition Syrian forces clear a border area from the threat posed by ISIS militants.